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Request PDF on ResearchGate | The frescoes of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina in Rome / | Vita. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Bryn Mawr College, Includes bibliographical . The Porta Latina (Latin - Latin Gate) is a single-arched gate in the Aurelian Walls of ancient Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. THE AURELIAN WALLS AT PORTA LATINA. Project background. The Aurelian Walls have long been viewed as one of the grand.


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The church San Giovanni a Porta Latina, furthermore its mural decoration cycle, is . 3 Paul, Styger, La decorazione a fresco di S. Giovanni a Porta Latina. Figure 3. Gates of Aurellian walls, location of the church San Giovanni a Porta Latina. Figure 4. San Giovanni in Oleo. Page 3. Figure 5. Groundplan of San. Download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for . PORTA LATINA. Poarta latina este una dintre cele mai frumoase si mai bine conservate.

Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna.

Maria in Trastevere Fig. This building was laid out at the foot of the 14 Melbourne Art Journal, no. Maria Antiqua, fresco, sixth century CE.

Maria Maggiore has disap- Christ in early Christian art depict him as an em- peared, but an inscription indicates that it probably peror. Maria Mag- the apse she would have been dressed in a golden giore that some writers have claimed they are later trabea picta. The Virgin interpretations are unconvincing. Mary has been seen as regina virginum, or queen of In the overall fifth-century mosaic program at S.

Virgin and Child in niche, Rome, S. Clemente, fresco, eighth century. She holds the Child with one hand, while was a later addition, but John Osborne has refuted the other clasps a jewelled cross.

This is reminiscent this, through a careful examination of the fresco.

The angels that they were painted at the same time. Again Mary seem to splay out from the centre of the composi- is depicted as queen. Two niches adorned with an im- tion, rather like those on the sixth-century ampulla age of Virgin and Child enthroned were discovered Fig.

Lorenzo fuori le Mura. The restorers noted Since the s a number of icons have been that the angel on the left was much more expertly restored in Rome. When the overpainting of many painted than the one on the right, who also holds centuries has been removed, fragments of very early a rod of office.

At the feet of the Madonna was the images made in the encaustic technique have been kneeling figure of a donor bishop with a square halo, revealed. Among these early icons is a large image as can be seen from later copies of the icon.

Maria in Trastevere, 1. Around her neck is a broad latter date. Her upper robe is bordered with jewels, nal encaustic composition was in bad condition and and adorned with cuffs and epaulettes encrusted with much overpainted. Beneath the later layers of paint to reveal an imposing image of skirt one can see a jewelled stole or loros. On her head 16 Melbourne Art Journal, no.

Madonna della Clemenza, Rome, S. Maria in Trastevere, encaustic icon, early eighth century CE. Palatine Hill in the sixth century, then remodeled gems. Around her neck is a heavy necklace and on and redecorated several times, before it was covered her head is a crown.

The pose and gestures of the by a landslide in There is one fascinating wall to the right jewels and regalia of a Byzantine empress.

The earliest one, however, is an image of the saints survives beneath the famous painting of the Madonna and Child seated on a lyre-backed throne, crucifixion. It dates from the sixth suggest a similar image of Mary as Queen.

San Giovanni a Porta Latina

Originally, before the apse took its present Mary also sits enthroned with the Christ Child form, there were most likely two angels flanking the on her lap in a niche in the Lower Church of S. The Christ side walls of the niche flank this image.

The fresco is Child is dressed in a tunic and himation, and holds usually dated to the eighth century. Mary wears dark a Gospel book, a baby yet also the divine Logos. Christ is clad Beneath it the jewelled cuff of her tunic is visible on in a golden tunic and himation, and carries a scroll. Over the purple garment she wears a stole On account of the elaborate crown and jewellery, or Loros richly adorned with rows of pearls and other the Dominican scholar Dominic Darcy believed that Melbourne Art Journal, no.

Eclissi, Watercolour copy of apse mural in the chapel of St Nicholas in the medieval Lateran Palace, — Windsor Castle, The Royal Collection. The orant Virgin has survived in part, ment known as the Investiture Contest, the popes in a figure that has been cut and joined in the middle, challenged the right of secular rulers in Christendom, and hence is shorter than the original.

It is notable make ecclesiastical appointments. In a direct attack that in the lost mosaic cycle only the central iconic on this papal policy the emperors appointed a series figure is depicted as Maria Regina.

In the narrative of anti-popes, so as to undermine the power of the scenes Mary wears the traditional Byzantine robe canonically elected reforming popes. The Investiture and maphorion. It was dedicated to St popes depicted in the second register of the apse Nicholas, but the apse was centered on a copy of the were involved.

Eventually in the Concordat of Madonna della Clemenza at S. Maria in Trastevere. Worms brought peace and an acknowledgement by It no longer exists, but is known from a seventeenth- the emperor that Church Investiture was not in his century watercolour by Eclissi Fig. It is this victory that the apse program print dated The Hand of II — , the reigning pontiff at the time of God comes down with a wreath.

Two popes with the Concordat. The other is named Pope Anastasius the square haloes kneel at her feet, while two of IV, who reigned in —, but it is more likely the earliest saintly pontiffs stand on either side of Anaclete II Pierleoni. He was elected to the papacy the apse. Further out were the eleventh and twelfth of St Bernard of Clairvaux.

Similarly, the saintly pope on his side of the apse is 18 Melbourne Art Journal, no. Jacopo Torriti, Apse mosaics, Rome, S. Maria Maggiore, c. Her head is surrounded by a Anaclete I, successor of St Peter himself.

The pope large golden halo. Once again, her crown and neck- near Callixtus is Silvester I, who was in the twelfth lace are reminiscent of those worn by the Empress century believed to have baptised the first Christian Theodora in the mosaics of San Vitale in Ravenna. Not much of it can be deciphered, but the and all imperial robes; and all provinces, palaces and following translation can be made of the words that districts of the City of Rome and of Italy; as well as can be read: The Concordat of Worms, was no doubt to emphasise the icon shows Mary as Mother of God, between angels, importance of the pope in relation to the emperor.

Maria in Trastevere, and it is likely Our Lady of Mercy. The inscription beneath the apse on a backless jewelled throne. She is depicted as the Queen of is reminiscent of a mosaic image made of the Mother Angels.

Mary Queen of Angels seated on a double throne. Both wear magnificent purple robes, imperial diadems, jewelled collars and golden robes, and Mary is crowned. The apse mosaic clothing encrusted with precious stones. When Jacopo Torriti scenes were in a sense a culmination of the imagery made his magnificent apse composition in S. Maria of Maria Regina. Yet in Trastevere Mary is not being Maggiore at the end of the thirteenth century, the crowned by Christ, although she is dressed in gold idea in Rome of Mary being enthroned with her Son and wears a crown.

The imagery was part Maria Maggiore encapsulates several of the themes of a long tradition. Yet there is a curious anomaly in which are the subject of this study: Torriti chose not to depict Mary in as Queen, enthroned with her Son and flanked by robes, jewellery and crown of the Roman image of angels and saints, with the artistic patrons at her feet Maria Regina, but in a Byzantine tunic and mapho- Fig.

The mosaic was made by the Franciscan rion, albeit of blue and gold. An inscription along the rim of the 2. Manion,a and Manion, , for S.

Giovanni a Porta Latina; conch is taken from the antiphons for the Feast of Manion, , for the icon. Wellen, , p. Matthew 1: In a blue roundel, gently 5. The Mary are enthroned beneath the canopy of heaven.

The icon of the Virgin Nikopoios in S. Marco in while she, like the Woman of the Apocalypse, has the Venice dates from the twelfth century, according to Mathews, , p.

Below the 6. The Akathistos Hymn was the most famous Marian Hymn in Con- angels kneel the two small figures of the two donors. For an English translation see Gambero, , pp.

Further out along the rim of the apse stand a series 7. Verdier, For this see, Baynes, , Anthony of Padua on the right. At either end of the pp. An unusual image of conch grows a tree, depicted with coils of acanthus Mary dressed in regal garments has been found in the Byzantine town of Dyrachium in Albania, as noted by Thierry, , and illustrated by inhabited by birds.

At the base of the left hand trunk Cormack, , fig. Lawrence, —; Brenk, , pp. For the image on sarcophagi see, Deichmann, , nos 16, 28c, to rise heavenwards. Her uplifted hands indicate 33, 96, , , , , , , , , , , , intercession, as Tronzo has pointed out. In one case, Deichmann, , no. For the scene in catacomb painting, Mathews, , pp.

Weitzmann, , no. Weitzmann, , p. Grabar, , Ampoules Monza, nos. See also Ihm, , Advocate or Intercessor. Grabar, , Ampoule Monza no. Bovini, , pp. It is generally accepted that Bishop Agnellus substantially redid only from the eighth century onwards. From the fifth the processions of saints. By this the image makes a theological point, which seems to confute the Arian views of the Ostrogothic founder of the church.

This makes 20 Melbourne Art Journal, no. Mary Queen of Angels one wonder whether it is really part of the original decoration of the wall. Kitzinger, , pp. For a discussion of these images in terms of their different thrones, Protoevangelium, XI. There are also other interpretations, which I have discussed in Barclay Mathews, , p. The throne is backless.

Lloyd, , p.

Brenk, , p. Cutler, , p. The inscription stated: See Brenk, , pp. Elsewhere, for example in the apse at Ochrid, Mary holds a mandorla Pointed out by Wellen, , p. This seems to indicate that he Nilgen, , p. Volbach, , no. Schubert, , pp. Effenberger and Severin, , pp. The subjects of the two Apol- Giordani, —74, p. This way of holding the Child is similar to that in the Nikopoios icon. Karpp, , p. Shepherd, ; Weitzmann, , no.

Cormack, Wilpert, , pp. Krautheimer, , p. Grabar, This is one of the main arguments of Mathews, The theory that that the golden robes were later additions comes from resentations after the late tenth century. Kalavrezou, , pp. Richter and Cameron, , pp. For the contention that Weitzmann, , B. These theories have not found general acceptance. For the Discussed in Barclay Lloyd, , pp.

Barclay Lloyd, , pp. Cormack, , pp. For S. Maria in Trastevere, see Kinney, ; Kitzinger, ; Barclay of the two saints is not immediately clear. Lloyd, , pp. The The church was destroyed by fire in Cutler, , pp. Mango and Hawkins, , pp. Haec autem stetit a dextris Dei, quia ipsa of what we see today: This welcomes us plus quam omne creatum honoratur a Deo. The connection between nourished through our eyes and helped in its growth towards the divine the Virgin and the Church is also noted in a different textual context love of orthodoxy, achieves the most exact vision of truth.

So the grace by Wellen, A Virgin with a Child reclining in her arms for our salvation is a pp. She is both mother and virgin at the same time, but Virginitate, in Migne, PL, vol.

For no shame to either condition. Through art we see a lifelike imitation a discussion of all this see Barclay Lloyd, For this church see Krautheimer, , pp.

Arguments that the description by Photios does not fit the mosaic in Hagia Sophia today, e. Just as the female saints in S. Apollinare Nuovo have gowns similar , p. Maria Antiqua Maria Regina, with ostentatious jewellery in the Diez and Demus, , p. Agnese fuori le Mura. This is beautifully of the Church. Mathews, , pp. Romanelli and Nordhagen, , pl.

Nilgen, , fig. Demus, , pp. Maria Antiqua. Kitzinger, , p. Boyle, , pp. Osborne, , pp. See Russo, ; and Osborne, , with further bibliography. Matthiae, , pp. Studies on this subject include Lawrence, —; Osborne, Bertelli, —59; Bertelli, ; Bertelli, ; Urbani, ; ; and Nilgen, Bertelli, ; Russo, ; Matthiae, , pp. See Cecchelli, , pp. Russo, , p. For the traditional interpretation of the iconography of the arch, Urbani, ; Bertelli, — Bertelli, , pp.

Mary Queen of Angels Tronzo, Bertelli, Another example of the Maria Regina image flanked by archangels Bertelli, C. Ermete in Rome, Bertelli, see Nilgen, , fig.

Bertelli, C. Both are discussed and illustrated in Nilgen, , pp. Ladner, , pp. VIIa, especially pp. For the historical background see Palumbo, and Stroll, Tierney, , pp. Cristiana, no. Kinney, ; Kitzinger, Brandi and Bertelli, Zarnecki, Brandi, C.

Alpatov, , pp. Bovini, G. Apollinare Nuovo, Milan, Maria Maggiore, Rome, See Cecchelli, , Boyle, pp.

porta latina nova pdf

The inscription is: See Cecchelli, , p. Brenk, B. Maria Maggiore zu Tronzo, , pp. Brodsky, N. Cameron, A. Medieval icons of this type survive from S.

Maria in Aracoeli, S. Journal of Theological Studies, 29, , pp. Maria in Via Lata, SS. Bonifacio ed Alessio, S. Maria in Campo Marzo Cameron, and S.

Category:Porta Latina (Rome)

Lorenzo in Damaso. Most are of twelfth or thirteenth century Cameron, A. See Grassi, ; Belting, , pp. Cameron, Cameron, A. Bibliography Mullett and R.

Per me, si quis introerit, salvabitur, et ingredietur et egredietur et pascua inveniet. For a broad and recent discussion of inscriptions and images during the Middle Ages, see Debiais b. Keil and Jessica N. Richardson for reading the text and the useful suggestions.

Of course, any mistake is my responsibility. Open Access. The lettering of the two inscriptions displays notable affinities with captions on the front folio and incipit of the first Giant Bibles. The altar is now in the parish church of Santa Galla in Rome. Two reused slabs, decorated with putti in tendrils of vine, which, according to Christian iconography, signify Jesus as a life-giving vine, serve as the arm rests. It was only visible in his absence, and likely only readable to those located close to the choir, i.

From afar the text embodied a symbolic presence.

After being on display to the Roman people for a few days, Leo, cardinal bishop of Ostia, placed these relics in public under this new altar on the ninth day before the calends of February. Papal throne, backrest. Papal throne. Quite the same strategy was carried out on the throne of San Clemente, commissioned by Anastasius, the cardinal who oversaw the building of the new church — Fig.

However, instead of reusing images, the artist chose to reuse an inscribed stone slab.

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The dedication is displayed around the circular frame of the backrest which has the same form as the throne of San Lorenzo in Lucina : Anastasius presbiter cardinalis huius tituli hoc opus fecit et perfecit.

The inscribed slab suggests a connection between Anastasius, the pope sitting on the throne, and the martyr, Clement, to whom the church was dedicated.

These inscriptions located in liturgical spaces inside dim, candlelit churches could only be seen by relatively few people. And they were most likely only read by members of the clergy. For patron inscriptions, see Keil At San Clemente, for instance, the papal throne was also connected to the meaning of the apse mosaic. They commemorated the consecration of the altar or the church, and sometimes referred to relics.

In fact, throughout the city, the inscriptions seen most frequently were dedications of churches and lists of martyrs written on stones. The back with the porphyry disc is typical of the solium, and the leonine heads are from late antique Roman sellae. As in San Clemente, these inscriptions were only accessible to a small number of people; the relationship between the distance at which they had to be viewed and the form of script makes them a sort of private prayer. For a comprehensive bibliography, see Riccioni ; Croiser ; Riccioni b, — The chamberlain Alfanus made many gifts.

These are works that can only be compared to one another and manifest an evident renewal of antiquity. The first two examples are the most discussed, as their decoration has given rise to different hypotheses.

The imagines clipeatae of Pudentiana, Praxedis and the Lamb have been placed above the door, in a position not too different from the original disposition, while Pastor and Pudens, as indicated by the direction of the flower clusters, were placed on the jambs on either side of the door.

The border of each clipeus contains a rich epigraphic commentary in leonine hexameters. The virgin Pudentiana stands before us with a full lamp. This Lamb re- deems the world fallen in sin with his blood.

Praxedis goes to receive the groom with the lamp on. This magnificent Pudens teaches the route to heaven. The allusion to the parable also extends to the sym- bolic meaning of the doors that remain open only to the virgins with lighted lamps, but closed to the foolish virgins, that is, the faithful who have not been diligent. He con- siders the lighted lamps as bona opera, because in the Church the wise virgins mean prudentes et iustos, but the foolish virgins mean vanos et fatuos.

III, s. IV, De virginibus, Patrologia Latina , cc. Moreover, and not marginal for the historical artistic issues, here we find the use of metaplasm, not the tmesis parts of a compound word separated by another word that Ferrua noted.

The Madonna is virgo preclara, Pudentiana is virgo pudens. The metaplasm is also used to allegorize the name of Pudentiana as used in classical and medieval literature. The one who calls is himself the way, the guide and the guardian who promises joys and forgives sins. Thanks to Claudio Mastandrea for his sugges- tions on this topic. Nos meritis hor um redeamus ad alta polor um. See Riccioni Benedict himself, a consecrated cardinal, made the church consecrated, at the time of the same holy pope, the seventh day before the first of August, in the name of Pastor and of the precursor John.

Because of the cross and the garment of God, this place must be considered holy; united with them in this place are also part of the garment of St.

Consacration inscription of S. Pastore Chapel. Relics are remembered in the central part of the text. The first part of the text is in hexametric verse while the invocation of the last two lines is in prose. The use of metaplasm in epigraphy is very unusual, not only for inscriptions exe- cuted in Rome, and allows us to hypothesise that the author of the text was the same person as the author of the slab and the architrave and by that measure means that these works were executed during the same period.

Were there space on this stone, we could list say the names of many of them. Through their merits, may we reach the summit of the heavens. The portal of Santa Pudenziana, therefore, can be plausibly anchored in the eleventh century.

The inscriptions are displayed on frames circulating the saints and Christ in Majesty: signum crucis Ad me ponderibus press[i rec]reabo venite. I am the quiet rest, I am God, life and salvation. Christ in Fig. Right jamb. Left jamb. The account of a final inscription on the architrave, handed down by Ugonio, is not considered reliable. These portraits refer to the papal portraits that once adorned the early Christian basilicas of San Pietro in the Vatican and San Paolo fuori le mura,56 but they can also be related to the specific funerary use of the imago clipeata.

Miracle of Chersonesus. Image of Saint Clement. The Reform consisted of a series of reforms of ecclesiastical structures that were dia- lectically combined, producing a radical change, which was not the result of a pre-es- tablished project and had no single root.

See also Riccioni b, f. Noticeably, decoration is absent, and the inscriptions are written directly on the lintel over the door. Lorenzo in Lucina the inscription reads: 62 Having posed the question in these terms, the recent historiography is unanimous in recognizing that is not possible to speak of the art of the Church Reform, see Gandolfo ; Sukale ; Pace ; Kessler , with a different approach; Barral i Altet ; Gandolfo , —; Claussen , For an overview of this topic, see Riccioni b, — The text, in leonine hexameters, commemorates a certain Peter presbiterus priest res- ponsible for the execution of the portal, probably dating to the same time as the altar consecration.

The capital script is carried out in square shapes and slightly elongated, the incision is executed with a thin groove. The execu- tions of B, P, and the curvatures of the letters as they approach the arc of a circle are also related. It is strong in its jambs. God consider him worthy to be joined to your saints. The letters are written in Romanesque majuscule; as they are small, they are difficult to read from afar.

The second part of the text continues on the door frame, written in larger letters: Que domus ista gerit si pignera noscere queris corpora Paulini sint credas Bartholomei.

The text produces further evidence of the presence of both Saint Paulinus and Saint Bartholomew in the church. The inscription on the upper lintel of the door has not been added to an older door in order to confirm the presence of the relics in the church, as has been suggested.

The first part of the inscription is arranged symmetrically on the upper frame,75 with small letters, and corresponds with the intention to affirm the presence of the relics.

The text is not only closely linked to the monument, but also does not seem intended to reach out to a wider public. The larger letters of the second inscription seem to be directed to a broader public.

Porticoes were mostly built to showcase the reformed Roman Church and the archi- trave served as the space where the assertion was explicitly expressed in writing. The new constructions adopted the ionic colonnade and the archi- trave used in Late Antiquity for the interior of Early Christian basilicas, among which Santa Maria Maggiore formed a model of particular symbolic significance.Lloyd, , pp. Sisto, progetta di elevare sulle rovine di S. What is remarkable about the depiction of the Mary appears four times on the arch.

Maria in Aracoeli, S. Cormack, , pp.